Presumably to say that happiness is the supreme good seems a
platitude, and some more distinctive account of it is still
required. This might perhaps be achieved by grasping what is
the function of man.. Is it likely that whereas joiners and
shoemakers have certain functions or activities, man as such
has none, but has been left by nature a functionless being?
Men are good in one way, but bad in many.
It is evident that the city-state is a creation of nature, and
that man is by nature a political animal.
The weaker are always anxious for justice and equality. The
strong pay no heed to either.
Tragedy is a representation of action that is worthy of serious
attention, complete in itself and of some magnitude - bringing
about by means of pity and fear the purging of such emotions.
The soul is characterised by these capacities: self-nutrition,
sensation, thinking and movement.
Suppose that a tool, e.g., an axe, were a natural body, then
being an axe would have been its essence, and so its soul; if
this dissapeared from it, it would have ceased to be an axe,
except in name.
Thought, as we have so far described it, is what it is by virtue
of becoming all things, while there is another which is what
it is by virtue of making all things: this is a sort of positive
state like light; for in a sense light makes potential colours
into actual colours.
A likely impossibility is always preferable to an unconvincing
say of what is that it is not, or of what is not that it is,
is false, while to say of what is that it is, and of what is
not that it is not, is true.
origin of action - its effecient, not its final cause - is choice,
and that of choice is desire and reasoning with a view to an
end. This is why choice cannot exist either without thought
and intellect or without a moral state; for good action and
its opposite cannot exist without a combination of intellect
and character. Intellect itself, however, moves nothing, but
only the intellect which aims at an end and is practical.
good person is related to his friend as to himself (for his
friend is another self).